In an eight-week study in Great Britain, pine bark extract was used to treat 21 patients with severe chronic venous insufficiency (including ankle swelling and a history of venous ulcerations). On average, the patients had had symptoms for almost six years. After taking pine bark extract everyone showed significant improvement in edema, as well as circulation problems, as opposed to the control group which showed no change. The researchers concluded that pine bark extract can play a significant role in the management of venous insufficiency and may also be useful in preventing ulcerations.
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