The Microcirculatory System

The Micro Cirulatory System

The Micro Vascular SystemMedical researchers now know that poor microcirculation is one of the single biggest contributing factors to the health problems we commonly associate with the macrocirculatory system. In other words, a heart attack is most likely the long-term result of a damaged microcirculatory system.

For example, we’ve all heard of blockages in the coronary artery, and we all know those are bad. If a doctor tells you that, in the very next sentence he is probably going to send you to a heart surgeon to schedule by-pass surgery.

But what really caused the blockage and why is it in that particular place? Was it cholesterol? Arterial calcification? If that was the case, shouldn’t the blockage extend the length of the entire artery? Why do these blockages tend to form in just one place in an artery? For years, the explanation given by heart specialists is that these blockages are skip lesions, meaning they skip around and form randomly.

A new theory in cardiovascular health appears to make a lot more sense. This theory, which is becoming more and more accepted by alternative health experts, is that arterial blockages form where the minute microcirculation blood vessels that feed the main arteries with oxygen and nutrients, shut down. When these extremely small blood vessels, called vasa vasorum, (from Latin—vessels of the vessels) become clogged and can no longer feed an artery, atherosclerotic lesions or atherosclerotic plaques can form.

It’s these atherosclerotic plaques that eventually choke off healthy arteries, preventing blood flow to and from the heart and to and from vital organs. And they might very well have never formed if the vasa vasorum, the tiny blood vessels that feed the arteries and remove waste, had continued to function properly.

So you see, all this focus on keeping the large veins and arteries healthy misses the point. It’s the microcirculatory system, the one that contains upwards of 60,000 miles of capillaries, arterioles, venules, and vasa vasorum that needs to be nourished and protected.

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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

vitalityDHEA is secreted by the adrenal glands, and also produced in the gonads (testes and ovaries), and brain. It is sometimes called the “mother of all hormones” because it is the building block from which estrogen and testosterone are produced, and is vital to health.

Thousands of scientific articles have been published on DHEA during the last 50 years, but a clear picture of its role in human health didn’t begin to emerge until the 1990’s.

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L-Citrulline and L-Arginine Increases Nitric Oxide Production for Cardiovascular and Immune Boosting Benefits

Healthy Cardio

The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax. This results in a relaxing of the blood vessels, and increased blood flow.

Citrulline’s beneficial effects on nitric oxide were demonstrated in a group of male professional cyclists who took 6 grams of oral citrulline before a race. Researchers found that the racers’ levels of arginine increased, as well as their neutrophil immune cells.

Citrulline’s enhancement of immunity may benefit endurance athletes as it has long been noted that immune defenses drop after an intense athletic event, increasing susceptibility to infection.

A human study showed the citrulline supplementation’s “time release” effect on arginine production. In this study an oral dose of 3.8 grams of citrulline resulted in a 227% peak increase in plasma arginine levels after 4 hours, compared with a 90% peak increase with the same dose of arginine.

Taken together, you can get an immediate boost of nitric oxide production from the arginine, while allowing the citrulline time to produce additional arginine, for prolonged nitric oxide production.

Read more about citrulline and arginine in the following articles:

Low Serotonin Solution Without Drugs


SunshineSerotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptomine (5-HT), was first identified over 50 years ago. Since then, scientists have found that low serotonin can be a serious problem for many people. It is responsible for a wide variety of central nervous system effects, including emotional equanimity, restful sleep, the regulation and perception of pain, sexual behavior, appetite control, and our general level of satisfaction and happiness with the world around us.

You may recognize the symptoms of low serotonin. They can affect anyone with anything from common, garden-variety malaise to serious emotional disorders. Here are just some of the symptoms:

  • Anxiety
  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • Low self esteem
  • Loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities
  • Sleep and appetite disturbances

Even worse, research indicates that low serotonin is associated with aggressive and violent behavior, as well as suicide, which appears to be on the rise.

Surprisingly, there are several inexpensive, safe, and effective nutritional approaches to enhance serotonin levels. In fact, solid scientific evidence that these nutritional approaches may actually work as well as (or even better) than Prozac® or similar types of drugs known as SSRI’s, or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.

But you wouldn’t know this if you only followed mainstream information. These drugs are big, big business — reaping billions a year in profits for the big drug companies. There is a strong commercial interest in keeping them on the market, regardless of the methods and consequences.

Nobody disputes the fact that SSRI’s and other antidepressants have a place in the world. And we don’t advocate anyone terminating any subscription medication and trying alternative treatments without consulting their physician beforehand.

But we do believe, and studies have proven, that there is a place for nutritionally-based supplements in the fight against depression, anxiety, all the related illnesses, and even just for those of us who often “just don’t feel well.”

Supplements that act on serotonin levels have been proven effective in a variety of treatments:

Depression: In a series of studies dating back to the late 1960s and early 1970s, 5-HTP given to seriously depressed people was reported to produce dramatic and sudden improvements.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: L-Tryptophan was found to be effective in reducing the symptoms of OCD.

Anxiety: Ten patients with anxiety were treated with 5-HTP, and significant reduction in anxiety was measured on three different scales designed to measure anxiety. And in a study of 20 people with panic disorders, several experienced relief after receiving 5-HTP.

Protect Serotonin Photo
Formerly known as Prosera

Preventing Migraine Headaches: One study showed that 5-HTP can reduce the intensity and duration of migraine headaches. Another study showed that 5-HTP is even more effective in preventing migraines.

Enhancing Sleep: The action of 5-HTP and tryptophan in promoting sleep without a drugged feeling or morning hangover are similar to the hormone melatonin, which is well-known for its sleep-regulating function. This is probably due to the fact that some of the serotonin produced in the body is converted directly into melatonin. Serotonin may also promote sleep by helping the brain “tune out” unwanted stimulation. One French study found that administration of 5-HTP to “mildly insomniac” people resulted in significant improvement.

Suppressing Appetite: According to a British obesity expert, among the most effective and safest candidates for drugs that genuinely suppress appetite are those that increase serotonin in the brain. Not surprisingly, one of the most common uses of SSRIs these days has been to suppress appetite with the goal of losing weight. But in one well-controlled study researchers found significant weight loss in a group treated with 5-HTP.

Fibromyalgia Relief: Two major studies in Italy demonstrated significant improvement in patients according to six different criteria.

Preventing Heart Disease: One surprising benefit of minimizing depression, anxiety and stress is a correlation with a reduction in the danger of heart disease. This has been demonstrated by a host of studies, but is far too complex a subject to investigate within the scope of this article. However, the connection is well documented.

Please review the following articles to read more about low serotonin and related health issues.

Magnolia is Nature’s Stress Fighter!

Happy People

If you need help in reducing your stress and anxiety levels—and most of us probably do—you should be aware of Magnolia Extract, an ancient Chinese medicine that has been proven as a powerful antioxidant, anticancer weapon, and an amazingly effective tool to combat the stress and anxiety of modern life.

To learn more about the stress-busting power of Magnolia, please read the article, Relieve Stress with Honokiol and Magnolol from Magnolia Extract!

To your health,

Us Smart Publications


Natto for Blood Flow

Blood Flow

Fibrinogen (a blood clotting protein) levels rise as we get older. And high levels of fibrinogen usually lead to increased platelet aggregation, blood clots, and eventually heart attack or stroke.

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High fibrinogen levels are considered a more dangerous risk factor for heart attack and stroke than high cholesterol. A study of 2,116 men found that those with high LDL (bad) cholesterol but low fibrinogen levels had only one sixth the risk for heart attack than the men with low LDL and high fibrinogen.

Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids


A balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is essential to promoting and maintaining health. According to Artemis Simpoulos, M.D., President of the Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health in Washington D.C. and co-author of The Omega Plan (Harper Collins, 1998), “The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in the typical Western diet is betweeen 10-to-1 and 21-to-1, whereas the diet humans evolved on had a ratio of 1-to-1. One of the most important medical findings of recent years is that eating a balanced ratio of EFAs brings your diet back in sync with your genes and helps you experience optimal health.”

Current thinking is that omega-6 and omega-3 fats need to be balanced in the diet at a ratio of 1-to-1 or 2-to-1. And the best way to do that is to supplement your diet with an excellent fish oil nutritional supplement, and/or eat fish several times a week.

Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct, as well as having opposing physiological functions, says Simpoulos. “Omega-3s and omega-6s work differently in the body. When they’re in balance, they’re both very good. When the omega-6s are in excess, they become bad.”

Here’s what happens: omega-3s produce hormone-like eicosanoids that are anti-inflammatory. These eicosanoids help support normal blood pressure by relaxing the arteries and blood vessels and decreasing blood lipids. They also decrease blood clotting factors and support immune function.

Omega-6s, however, can produce both anti-inflammatory and/or inflammatory and vasoconstricting eicosanoids. To oversimplify just a bit: omega-6s are good for you if you take them in the right amount with omega-3s. However, in the absence of omega-3s they can be very bad indeed.

Too many omega-6s in your diet in the absence of sufficient omega-3s can produce potent inflammatory agents that set the stage for autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, and a host of other health problems.

But the eicosanoids produced by omega-3s help inhibit the production of these inflammatory agents. To clarify further: LA gets made into GLA, then into DGLA and then into either AA (arachidonic acid), which then gets made into inflammatory eicosanoids, or the DGLA gets made into a series of VERY BENEFICIAL eicosanoids that have, among other effects, antiviral and anti-vaso-constrictive effects.

What determines whether DGLA goes to AA or to the beneficial eicosanoids?

Well, low EPA and high insulin will cause DGLA to go to AA (that’s why Americans have such high levels of AA; we make it in our own bodies). If you have good levels of EPA and low insulin (by doing an insulin-smart diet) then your body will NOT make AA from DGLA … instead the DGLA will get made into the beneficial eicosanoids.

So, in a word, to turn omega-6 fats into a positive biological reaction, you take omega-3s! Confusing enough yet?

Even though omega-6 is an essential fatty acid, too much of it can do more harm than good. Insulin encourages the conversion of (omega-6) Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) into arachidonic acid. So does consumption of sugar, alcohol, saturated fats and trans-fatty acids, diabetes, aging, stress, and some prescription medications. Low levels of EPA also strongly encourage the conversion of omega-6 into AA. In essence, everything about the modern Western World diet encourages the conversion of dietary LA into heart disease causing AA! The solution? Reduce your intake of refined carbohydrates and take fish oil!

Read more about Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids here:

Omega-3 Fatty Acids From Fish Oil Protect Your Heart, Brain and Overall Health

Citrulline Stronger for Men

Fool around with arginine
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study conducted by researchers at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany showed oral L-citrulline increased L-arginine blood levels and boosted nitric oxide-dependent signaling and therefore levels of cGMP much more effectively than L-arginine.
Other studies have confirmed that supplementing with L-citrulline can actually reverse blood vessel lining dysfunctions!

PS & DHA for a Healthy Brain

Brain Neurons Firing

Brain Neurons FiringPS (phosphatidylserine) has been the subject of numerous human clinical trials of memory loss, mood, and cognitive performance such as learning ability, concentration, and processing. Many of the studies show that PS can be helpful for those with age-related memory impairment. It can even enhance cognition and mental function in those with no cognitive impairment.

PS plays a crucial role in many membrane-associated nerve cell processes and by increasing the number of neurotransmitter receptor sites. The increased number of receptor sites may explain why the memory-enhancing effects last for up to a month even after the supplement is discontinued.

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) found in marine organisms and omega 3 fatty acid supplements is also required for maintenance of normal brain functions. The enrichment of diets with omega 3 fatty acids has been shown to improve learning abilities, whereas deficiency has been associated with learning deficits. DHA is taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. And, as it turns out, PS is the natural delivery system for getting DHA into the brain.

PS & DHA supplementation just might be the natural solution for preventing cognitive dysfunction. If you are concerned about your long-term brain health and protecting yourself from Alzheimer’s or age-related dementia, you should consider combining PS & DHA for enhanced benefits.

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Enlarged Prostate Slowing You Down?

Avoid an enlarged prostateAlthough a staggering 12 million men suffer from an enlarged prostate, most can’t even begin to describe what the gland exactly does.

How much do you know about the prostate gland?

The prostate is the size and shape of a walnut and is located under the bladder and directly in front of the rectum. It secretes a thin, milky, alkaline fluid that:

  • Provides about half the fluid in semen
  • Helps transport sperm by providing a protective alkaline escort through the acidic regions of the vagina and cervix
  • Helps moisten the lining of the urethra

What causes an enlarged prostate?

After about age 40, the prostate begins to grow in just about every male. Sometimes an enlarged prostate is a sign of cancer, but usually the result is a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia. Most doctors refer to an enlarged prostate simply as BPH.

Do You Have an Enlarged Prostate?

In some men, an enlarged prostate does not cause urinary problems—probably because their urethra is wider than average, or because the gland tends to enlarge outward. In most men, however, as an enlarged prostate develops, the prostate presses against the neck of the bladder or urethra, squeezing the pipe shut, like stepping on a garden hose. This pressure can make it difficult to urinate and results in a variety of symptoms.

Also, the bladder wall becomes thicker and irritable. The bladder begins to contract even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination. Eventually, the bladder weakens and loses the ability to empty itself. Urine remains in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and partial emptying of the bladder cause many of the problems associated with an enlarged prostate, including:

  • Urgency—the need to go immediately
  • During urination, there is a thin stream of urine that stops and starts instead of a full, steady stream
  • Hesitancy or difficulty starting urine flow
  • Dribbling after urinating
  • Nocturia — having to get up frequently at night to urinate
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Increased risk of infection if the bladder does not empty entirely and urine is retained

Why does an enlarged prostate occur in the first place?

Although the exact cause isn’t known, there are a few theories. First of all, we’ve known for centuries that an enlarged prostate occurs mainly in older men and that it doesn’t develop in men whose testes were removed before puberty. For this reason, researchers believe that factors related to aging and the testes may spur the development of BPH.

Male hormones

Men produce both testosterone, an important male hormone, and small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone. As men age, the amount of active testosterone in the blood decreases, leaving a higher proportion of estrogen. One theory, based on animal studies, suggests that an enlarged prostate may occur because the higher amount of estrogen within the gland increases the activity of substances that promote cell growth.

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Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a substance derived from testosterone in the prostate, which may help control its growth. Most animals lose their ability to produce testosterone as they age. However, some research has indicated that even with a drop in the blood’s testosterone level, older men continue to produce and accumulate high levels of DHT in the prostate. This accumulation of DHT may encourage the growth of cells resulting in an enlarged prostate. Scientists have also noted that men who do not produce DHT do not develop an enlarged prostate.

Some researchers suggest that an enlarged prostate may develop as a result of “instructions” given to cells early in life. According to this theory, BPH occurs because cells in one section of the gland follow these instructions and “reawaken” later in life. These “reawakened” cells then deliver signals to other cells in the gland, instructing them to grow or making them more sensitive to hormones that influence growth.2

What causes prostate cancer?

Like other cancers, the cause is unknown. But it seems to be linked to increasing age—most likely because the prostate gland enlarges with each passing year. Some research suggests that prostate cancer is linked to diet and environment: men who eat fruits, vegetables and whole foods rich in lycopene and selenium, have lower rates of cancer than those who eat a poor diet high in saturated animal fats and red meat. Also, Asians in China and Japan typically have low rates of prostate cancer. But when they immigrate to the US and change their eating habits, they get it at the same rate as other Americans.

Your genes play an important role, too. If the disease runs in your family, you’ve got a one-in-four chance of developing it yourself.

Why is the incidence of prostate cancer increasing?

One reason is that we’re living longer. In the early 20th century, men usually died from pneumonia, tuberculosis, or other infectious diseases. According to Tom Sansone, urologist at Bryn Mawr Hospital in Pennsylvania, autopsies of 40-year-old men show that a fifth have signs of cancer. By age 70, about 65 percent of men have cancerous cells in their prostate glands. And by age 80, a man’s chance of prostate cancer rises to one in three. So, if you don’t succumb to heart attack or stroke, and keep on living to a ripe old age, there’s a very good chance you’ll end up with prostate cancer.

Also, we’re living in a toxic world. Alternative Medicine (The Burton Goldberg Group, Future Medicine Publishing, Inc. 1997) reports that there are higher rates of prostate cancer in men who work with batteries3, and men who work in the petrochemical, rubber, and textile industries.4 And urban areas have higher incidences as opposed to rural, which is thought to be due to air and other pollution.5

(See Smart Publications article, The Key to Survival in a Toxic World)

Unlike BPH, prostate cancer may not give symptoms in its early, curable stage, which is why it’s important to get a PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) test each year starting in your 40s, in which the blood is analyzed for evidence of cancer.

The surprising truth about why the popular herb saw palmetto might not be the best way to help an enlarged prostate.

Unless you already have prostate cancer, do not take saw palmetto because it may cause cellular damage and death in healthy prostate cells!!

Saw palmetto is good stuff … if you have prostate cancer!

More than 20 controlled double-blind studies have demonstrated that saw palmetto berry extract (containing 85-95% fatty acids and sterols) is effective in relieving the major symptoms of BPH, including increased night-time urinary frequency, the most bothersome complaint.6

For years nobody knew exactly how saw palmetto worked, but we now know that it shrinks the prostate gland by killing prostate cells—both malignant and healthy cells. Surprisingly, while saw palmetto is selectively toxic to prostate cells and prostate cancer cells, it has not been researched as a treatment for prostate cancer. The big question is, “Should saw palmetto be used as a preventative supplement if it actually works by poisoning the prostate gland?”

Important information about saw palmetto!

Three recent studies investigating the effectiveness and effect of saw palmetto on prostate tissue came up with the same conclusion: Saw palmetto has an effect similar to chemotherapy on prostate cells—it kills both unhealthy and healthy cells!

Up until now, saw palmetto extract has been the supplement of choice in the treatment of BPH. Saw palmetto is very good at helping to shrink overgrown prostate tissues, and it was thought to reduce the level of DHT by blocking its receptor sites in the prostate and by inhibiting enzymes necessary for DHT conversion.

Unfortunately, 3 recent surprising scientific studies indicate saw palmetto may work, but also harm your prostate health!

  1. One study examined the effect of saw palmetto on stroma cells—the framework cells that build supportive tissue — and on epithelial cells —those which line the glands and ducts of the prostate. The study was done on normal prostate tissue and on BPH tissues from patients treated with and without the saw palmetto. The conclusion was that saw palmetto damages the nuclear and mitochondrial membranes, and causes cellular death in the epithelium and stroma.7
  2. Another study investigated the effects of saw palmetto on primary cultures of fibroblasts (cells that produce connective tissue), and epithelial cells from the prostate, epididymis (the tube that provides for the storage, transmission and maturation of sperm), testes, kidney, skin and breast to determine if the action of saw palmetto is selective and specific to prostate tissue. This study concluded that saw palmetto caused damage and death in prostate tissue, but there were no similar changes observed in other types of cells.8
  3. This study examined the effect of saw palmetto on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Again, the results showed there was widespread damage of intracellular membranes, including mitochondrial and nuclear membranes in both healthy and overgrown prostate tissue.9

Because of this new information, it seems prudent to avoid saw palmetto extract as a preventative supplement for prostate health. Saw Palmetto may eventually turn out to be an effective way to kill prostate tumor cells, but its toxicity to healthy prostate cells is reason enough to be concerned about taking saw palmetto daily as a means of preventing prostate problems.

Current studies indicate that about 12 million men in the United States alone are affected by BPH.

You don’t have to be one of them. Even if you’re not experiencing symptoms, it’s never too early to support and tone your glandular tissues and help regulate hormonal imbalances.

Comprehensive prostate care

Fortunately, researchers and medical professionals from around the world are reporting encouraging data on “male” nutritional supplements in addition to saw palmetto—and their effectiveness in supporting prostate health. But most supplements sold in the US don’t measure up to the European pharmaceutical standards and aren’t nearly as effective.

Key nutrients and herbal extracts provide prostate support

The prevention of prostate cancer and BPH has been shown to be related to dietary intakes of some key nutrients, and several herbal extracts also can strongly influence prostate problems. BPH and cancer are very treatable health conditions. But a lot of formulas do not contain high quality ingredients. It’s very important, however, that the particular herbal extracts and nutrients are of the highest quality available and meet European pharmaceutical standards.

We, at Smart Publications, have reviewed all the literature on nutritional prevention and treatment for BPH and prostate cancer. In this body of research, there are many natural substances that have positive effects on prostate health. However, we were not satisfied with a suggestive study or two. We looked hard and selected the following items based on the following criteria:

  1. There had to be a significant number of studies indicating positive prostate health effects and the studies had to be independently replicated.
  2. We had to be convinced about the safety based on a long history of traditional use of the substance by humans or long history of scientific investigation or both.

Here’s what we found:

  1. Boron – According to a study done at UCLA, men with the highest boron intake were 65 percent less likely to develop prostate cancer than men with the lower boron intake. The researchers compared dietary patterns of 76 men with prostate cancer to that of 7,651 males without cancer. Men in the lowest quartile of boron consumption ate about one slice of fruit per day, while those in the highest quartile ate 3.5 servings of fruit per day. The researchers found that boron’s cancer-fighting effects seem to be specific for prostate cancer. Foods that are high in boron include: red wine, raisins, peanuts, apples, pears, peaches, oranges, grapes, lima beans, and peanut butter.10
  2. Grape seed extract – contains proanthocyanidins, potent antioxidants that may lower the risk of cancer. In a recent study, grape seed extract was used to inhibit cell growth in human cancerous prostate cells. The results suggest that grape seed antioxidant proanthocyanidins may exert a strong anticarcinogenic effect against prostate cancer by inhibiting abnormal cell growth and promoting tumor cell death.13
  3. Green tea – Next time you eat at a Japanese or Chinese restaurant, order a pot of green tea! It not only tastes good, but scientists have observed that people who consume tea regularly have a lower risk of prostate (and breast) cancer-related deaths. In fact, the incidence of prostate cancer in China, a population that consumes green tea on a regular basis, is lowest in the world.14 And sure enough, recent studies done both on human cells and mice, have shown that green tea’s polyphenol—epigallocatechin-3-gallate—blocks the growth of prostate cancers.151617
  4. Lycopene – Have you had your tomato sauce today? This member of the family of phytochemicals known as carotenoids, is a powerful antioxidant that is found in red fruits and vegetables, especially tomatoes, watermelon, red grapefruit, and guava. Researchers have linked the frequent use of lycopene from tomatoes to a lower risk of prostate and other cancers.18 Interestingly, in one study, researchers found that significantly lower serum and tissue lycopene levels were observed in the cancer patients than in their control group, indicating that lycopene prevents oxidative damage of biomolecules and consequently reduces the risk of prostate cancer.19
  5. Vitamin E – is a major antioxidant nutrient that helps maintain healthy membranes and retards cellular aging due to oxidation. It is especially important to sexual and reproductive health. One study that followed more than 29,000 male Finnish smokers, ages 50 to 69, for five to eight years, showed that vitamin E reduces the risk of prostate cancer.20Our diets contain mostly the gamma tocopherol form of vitamin E. Most dietary supplements contain only alpha tocopherol, not gamma tocopherol. Unfortunately, high intakes of alpha tocopherol actually pushes the preferred gamma form of vitamin E out of the body. And since the most current research shows it is gamma tocopherol that is associated with a reduction of prostate cancer—especially when combined with selenium and alpha tocopherol 21 —make sure you take a supplement that contains gamma and alpha, not just alpha tocopherol!21
  6. Selenium – There have been many studies showing a direct connection between selenium and prostate cancer, and most nutritionist agree, it’s hard to get enough of it on a daily basis without taking a nutritional supplement. In the now famous Clark Study, a 63% reduction in prostate cancer was found in men who received 200 micrograms of selenium from a selenium-enriched yeast containing mostly selenomethionine. The conclusion? Eat more tuna, Brazil nuts, and sunflower seeds, and to guard against gaps in your diet, take a daily supplement containing 200 micrograms of selenium from selenium-enriched yeast or selenomethionine!22Another study conducted at Stanford University found that low plasma selenium is associated with a 4 to 5-fold increased risk of prostate cancer. These results support the hypothesis that supplemental selenium may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. And because plasma selenium decreases with patient age, supplementation is particularly beneficial to older men.23
  7. Pygeum africanum – is an evergreen tree that grows in the mountainous forests of Africa. Unfortunately it has become an endangered species due to its popularity as a european pharmaceutical for prostate problems. Luckily, high quality extract is still being produced using farmed trees grown on plantations for medicinal use. This bark extract has been prescribed by European doctors for years, both to help preserve prostate health and promote a man’s overall well being. Pygeum not only helps avoid an enlarged prostate, but also promotes prostate function. Unlike saw palmetto, it is not toxic to prostate cells and is even an antioxidant. It contains a variety of active compounds that synergistically aid prostate health. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of Pygeum extract in treating BPH, including reduction of the frequency of nighttime urination25; and relief of symptoms associated with genito-urinary problems resulting from BPH.26
  8. Nettle root – commonly known as stinging nettles, you may have had the experience of walking through a field of this plant in Great Britain. Unpleasant, yes! But if you want to prevent an enlarged prostate, relieve reduced urinary bladder capacity, urinary outflow, and residual urine flow, the extract made from the root of this medicinal plant will help do the trick. It is well documented and recognized, especially in Europe, to relieve symptoms of BPH2728. Just make sure you’re using nettle root and not nettle leaf, which is used to alleviate arthritis symptoms, not to reduce an enlarged prostate.

IMPORTANT NOTE about European Medicinal Herbs like Saw Palmetto, Pygeum, and Nettle:
While these 3 herbal extracts are successfully used in European countries for prostate problems as pharmaceuticals, and much of the impressive research has utilized these pharmaceutical grade extracts, MOST of the herbs sold in the United States DO NOT meet these exacting standards. To be sure you get outstanding results ONLY purchase products that use European Pharmaceutical Grade extracts of these three medicinal herbs.

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Frequently asked questions

What’s a PSA test?

PSA stands for prostate-specific antigen, a protein made by the prostate gland. It’s a simple blood sample that measures the level of the protein. In general, a PSA under 4 ng/ml (nanograms per milliliter) is considered low, 4 to 10 is moderately elevated, and over 10 is considered high. Keep in mind, though, that prostate cancer isn’t the only thing or even the most likely thing that can cause PSA levels to rise. An enlarged prostate can also boost scores. It’s important to have a digital rectal exam along with the PSA.

What’s a digital rectal exam like?

According to Tom Sansone, M.D., urologist at Bryn Mawr Hospital, says, “For a really vigorous exam, go to a urologist, Family practitioners tend to be more gentle and superficial.” An urologist will manipulate the gland for a full minute, exerting pressure in order to feel for nodules, areas of hardness, changes of consistency and symmetry. A normal prostate should have two symmetrical lobes and the consistency of a rubber ball. If it’s so hard that the doctor can’t indent it with his thumb, then he knows there’s a problem.

Can I still have sex with an enlarged prostate?

Yes, in fact, the more sex the better! Regular sex, or at least ejaculation, is beneficial since it gets the juices flowing and clears out the ducts.

If I have an enlarged prostate, will I develop prostate cancer?

Not necessarily. According to Ronald L. Hoffman, M.D., Medical Director of the Hoffman Center in NYC and host of “Health Talk”, a syndicated radio program, “It is very common to have prostate enlargement without cancer. In fact, prostate enlargement is virtually universal among North American men, while prostate cancer is not. Nevertheless, it’s estimated that the vast majority of men may have ‘microfoci’ of cancer: tiny clusters of cancer cells that are normally of very little consequence, because they are slow growing. But some of them can develop down the line.” (Conscious Choice, June 1999)


  1. American Cancer Society
  2. The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC), a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK); part of the National Institutes of Health under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  3. Smith, D.R., M.D. General Urology. 11th ed. Lost Altos, CA: Lange Medical Publications, 1982.
  4. Smith, D.R., M.D. General Urology. 11th ed. Los Altos, CA: Lange Medical publications, 1984. Kruzel, T. “What is the Prostate and Why is it Doing This to Me?” Health Review Newsletter (Aug. 1991).
  5.  Ibid.
  6. Murry, M.T.: “Saw Palmetto: Nature’s Answer for Benign Prostate Enlargement.” Let’s Live, July 1996, 72-73;83
  7. Vacherot F, Azzouz M, Gil-Diez-De-Medina S, Colombel M, De La Taille A, Lefrere Belda MA, Abbou CC, Raynaud JP, Chopin DK. “Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation by the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon in benign prostatic hyperplasia.” Prostate 2000 Nov 1;45(3):259-66
  8. Bayne CW, Ross M, Donnelly F, Habib FK. “The selectivity and specificity of the actions of the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on the prostate.” J Urol 2000 Sep;164(3 Pt 1):876-81
  9. Bayne CW, Donnelly F, Ross M, Habib FK. “Serenoa repens (Permixon): a 5alpha-reductase types I and II inhibitor-new evidence in a coculture model of BPH.” Prostate 1999 Sep 1;40(4):232-41
  10. Zhang, Z.-F., et al. 2001. Boron is associated with decreased risk of human prostate cancer. Abstract 834.3. Experimental Biology 2001 Meeting. March 31-April 4. Orlando.
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